PUBLICATIONS

Ahluwalia, M.S., P.K. Wallace, and D.M. Peereboom. 2012. Flow cytometry as a diagnostic tool in lymphomatous or leukemic meningitis: ready for prime time? Cancer 118:1747-1753.

Dharmadhikari, A., J. Francis, S.N.J. Sait, G. Deeb, P.K. Wallace, J.E. Thompson, E.S. Wang, and M. Wetzler. 2012. Similar distribution of cytogenetically aberrant populations between CD19-positive and -negative acute myeloid leukemia blasts. Am J Clin Pathol (submitted):

Ghoshal, S., M.T. Brady, O. Al Ustwani, P.K. Wallace, H. Baumann and M. Wetzler. 2012. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 promotes leukemogenesis. J Cin Invest (submitted):

Herko, A., P. Pophali, P.K. Wallace, P. Sharma, P. Loud, T. Khoury, and M. Battiwalla. 2012. T-cell large granular lymphocytosis associated with malignant thymoma. Leukemia research 36:e187-189.

Al Ustwani, O., J. Francis, P.K. Wallace, J. Ambrus, Jr., and M. Wetzler. 2011. Treating myelodysplastic syndrome improves an accompanying autoimmune disease along with a reduction in regulatory T-cells. In Leuk Res. e35-36.

Chanan-Khan, A., K.C. Miller, D. Lawrence, S. Padmanabhan, A. Miller, F. Hernandez-Illatazurri, M.S. Czuczman, P.K. Wallace, J.B. Zeldis, and K. Lee. 2011a. Tumor flare reaction associated with lenalidomide treatment in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia predicts clinical response. Cancer 117:2127-2135.

Chanan-Khan, A.A., K. Chitta, N. Ersing, A. Paulus, A. Masood, T. Sher, A. Swaika, P.K. Wallace, T.L. Mashtare, Jr., G. Wilding, K. Lee, M.S. Czuczman, I. Borrello, and N. Bangia. 2011b. Biological effects and clinical significance of lenalidomide-induced tumour flare reaction in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia: in vivo evidence of immune activation and antitumour response. British journal of haematology 155:457-467.

Mace, T.A., L. Zhong, C. Kilpatrick, E. Zynda, C.T. Lee, M. Capitano, H. Minderman, and E.A. Repasky. 2011. Differentiation of CD8+ T cells into effector cells is enhanced by physiological range hyperthermia. Journal of leukocyte biology 90:951-962.

Maguire, O., C. Collins, K. O'Loughlin, J. Miecznikowski, and H. Minderman. 2011. Quantifying nuclear p65 as a parameter for NF-kappaB activation: Correlation between ImageStream cytometry, microscopy, and Western blot. Cytometry. Part A : the journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology 79:461-469.

Melchjorsen, J., M.W. Risor, O.S. Sogaard, K.L. O'Loughlin, S. Chow, S.R. Paludan, S. Ellermann-Eriksen, D.W. Hedley, H. Minderman, L. Ostergaard, and M. Tolstrup. 2011. Tenofovir selectively regulates production of inflammatory cytokines and shifts the IL-12/IL-10 balance in human primary cells. Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes 57:265-275.

Tario, J.D., Jr., K.A. Muirhead, D. Pan, M.E. Munson, and P.K. Wallace. 2011. Tracking immune cell proliferation and cytotoxic potential using flow cytometry. Methods in molecular biology 699:119-164.

Wang, E.S., A. Zeidan, W. Tan, G.E. Wilding, L.A. Ford, P.K. Wallace, T.E. Hahn, M. Battiwalla, P.L. McCarthy, and M. Wetzler. 2011. Cytoreduction with gemtuzumab ozogamicin and cytarabine prior to allogeneic stem cell transplant for relapsed/refractory acute myeloid leukemia. Leukemia & lymphoma

Barth, R.J., Jr., D.A. Fisher, P.K. Wallace, J.Y. Channon, R.J. Noelle, J. Gui, and M.S. Ernstoff. 2010. A randomized trial of ex vivo CD40L activation of a dendritic cell vaccine in colorectal cancer patients: tumor-specific immune responses are associated with improved survival. Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research 16:5548-5556.

Battiwalla, M., M. Hepgur, D. Pan, P.L. McCarthy, M.S. Ahluwalia, S.H. Camacho, P. Starostik, and P.K. Wallace. 2010. Multiparameter flow cytometry for the diagnosis and monitoring of small GPI-deficient cellular populations. Cytometry. Part B, Clinical cytometry 78:348-356.

Nowak, N.J., S.N. Sait, A. Zeidan, G. Deeb, D. Gaile, S. Liu, L. Ford, P.K. Wallace, E.S. Wang, and M. Wetzler. 2010. Recurrent deletion of 9q34 in adult normal karyotype precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Cancer genetics and cytogenetics 199:15-20.

Pawarode, A., P.K. Wallace, L.A. Ford, M. Barcos, and M.R. Baer. 2010. Long-term safety and efficacy of cyclosporin A therapy for TCell large granular lymphocyte leukemia. Leuk. Lymphoma 51:338-341.

Riddell, J.R., X.Y. Wang, H. Minderman, and S.O. Gollnick. 2010. Peroxiredoxin 1 stimulates secretion of proinflammatory cytokines by binding to TLR4. Journal of immunology 184:1022-1030.

Segal, B.H., W. Han, J.J. Bushey, M. Joo, Z. Bhatti, J. Feminella, C.G. Dennis, R.R. Vethanayagam, F.E. Yull, M. Capitano, P.K. Wallace, H. Minderman, J.W. Christman, M.B. Sporn, J. Chan, D.C. Vinh, S.M. Holland, L.R. Romani, S.L. Gaffen, M.L. Freeman, and T.S. Blackwell. 2010. NADPH oxidase limits innate immune responses in the lungs in mice. PloS one 5:e9631.

Agrawal, T., V. Vats, P.K. Wallace, A. Singh, S. Salhan, and A. Mittal. 2009. Recruitment of myeloid and plasmacytoid dendritic cells in cervical mucosa during Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Clinical microbiology and infection : the official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases 15:50-59.

Akinnusi, M.E., L.L. Paasch, K.R. Szarpa, P.K. Wallace, and A.A. El Solh. 2009. Impact of nasal continuous positive airway pressure therapy on markers of platelet activation in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Respiration; international review of thoracic diseases 77:25-31.

Grant, J., K. Bourcier, S.S. Wallace, D. Pan, A. Conway, V. Seyfert-Margolis, and P.K. Wallace. 2009. Validated Protocol for FoxP3 Reveals Increased Expression in Type 1 Diabetes Patients. Cytometry B Clin Cytom 76B:67-157.:

Harb, A., W. Tan, G.E. Wilding, L.A. Ford, S.N. Sait, A.W. Block, M. Barcos, P.K. Wallace, E.S. Wang, and M. Wetzler. 2008. Treating ocogenerian and nonagenarian acute myeloid leukemia patients - predictive prognostic models.

Ly, N.P., B. Ruiz-Perez, R.M. McLoughlin, C. M. Visness, P.K. Wallace, W.W. Cruikshank, A.O. Tzianabos, G.T. O'Connor, D.R. Gold, and J.E. Gern 2009. Characterization of regulartory T Cells in Urban Newborns. Clin Mol Allergy 7:8.:

Qian, F., J. Villella, P.K. Wallace, P. Mhawech-Fauceglia, J.D. Tario, Jr., C. Andrews, J. Matsuzaki, D. Valmori, M. Ayyoub, P. J. Frederick, A. Beck, J. Liao, R. Cheney, K. Moysich, S. Lele, P. Shrikant, L.J. Old, and K. Odunsi. 2009 Efficacy of levo-1methyl tryptophan and dextro-1-methyl tryptophan in reversing indoleamine-2,3-dioxgenase=mediated arrest of T-Cell proliferation in human epithelial ovarian cancer. . Cancer Res. 69:5498-5504.:

Varadarajan, R., L. Ford, S.N. Sait, A.W. Block, M. Barcos, P.K. Wallace, N. Ramnath, E.S. Wang, and M. Wetzler. 2009. Metachrous and synchronous presentation of acute myeloid leukemia and lung cancer. Leuk 33:1208-1211.:

Agrawal, T., V. Vats, P.K. Wallace, S. Salhan, and A. Mittal. 2008. Role of cervical dendritic cell subsets, co-stimulatory molecules, cytokine secretion profile and beta-estradiol in development of sequalae to Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Reproductive biology and endocrinology : RB&E 6:46.

Bernstein, Z.P., T. Dougherty, S. Gollnick, S.A. Schwartz, S.d. Mahajan, J. Kepner, A. Sumlin, C. Stewart, P.K. Wallace, A. Adal, H. Walder, and B. Poiesz. 2008 Photopheresis in HIV-1 infected patients utilizing benzoporphyrin derivative (BPD) verteporfin and light.   Current HIV research 6:152-163.:

Paszkiewicz, G.M., E.A. Timm, Jr., M.C. Mahoney, P.K. Wallace, M.A. Sullivan Nasca, T.L. Tammela, A. Hutson, and J.L. Pauly. 2008. Increased human buccal cell autofluorescence is a candidate biomarker of tobacco smoking. Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology 17:239-244.

Reddy, N., F.J. Hernandez-Ilizaliturri, G. Deeb, M. Roth, M. Vaughn, J. Knight, P. Wallace, and M.S. Czuczman. 2008. Immunomodulatory drugs stimulate natural killer-cell function, alter cytokine production by dendritic cells, and inhibit angiogenesis enhancing the anti-tumour activity of rituximab in vivo. British journal of haematology 140:36-45.

Wallace, P.K., J.D. Tario, Jr., J.L. Fisher, S.S. Wallace, M.S. Ernstoff, and K.A. Muirhead. 2008. Tracking antigen-driven responses by flow cytometry: monitoring proliferation by dye dilution. Cytometry. Part A : the journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology 73:1019-1034.

Agrawal, T., V. Vats, P.K. Wallace, S. Salhan, and A. Mittal. 2007. Cervical cytokine responses in women with primary or recurrent chlamydial infection. J Interferon Cytokine Res 27:221-226.

Battiwalla, M., Y. Wu, R.P. Bajwa, M. Radovic, N.G. Almyroudis, B.H. Segal, P.K. Wallace, R. Nakamura, S. Padmanabhan, T. Hahn, and P.L. McCarthy, Jr. 2007. Ganciclovir inhibits lymphocyte proliferation by impairing DNA synthesis. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 13:765-770.

Brooks, T.A., K.L. O'Loughlin, H. Minderman, B.N. Bundy, L.A. Ford, M.R. Vredenburg, R.J. Bernacki, W. Priebe, and M.R. Baer. 2007. The 4'-O-benzylated doxorubicin analog WP744 overcomes resistance mediated by P-glycoprotein, multidrug resistance protein and breast cancer resistance protein in cell lines and acute myeloid leukemia cells. Invest New Drugs 25:115-122.

Cruz, R.I., F.J. Hernandez-Ilizaliturri, S. Olejniczak, G. Deeb, J. Knight, P. Wallace, B.L. Thurberg, W. Kennedy, and M.S. Czuczman. 2007. CD52 over-expression affects rituximab-associated complement-mediated cytotoxicity but not antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity: preclinical evidence that targeting CD52 with alemtuzumab may reverse acquired resistance to rituximab in non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Leuk Lymphoma 48:2424-2436.

Fairhurst, A.M., P.K. Wallace, A.S. Jawad, and N.J. Goulding. 2007. Rheumatoid peripheral blood phagocytes are primed for activation but have impaired Fc-mediated generation of reactive oxygen species. Arthritis Res Ther 9:R29.

Fox, C.H., E.A. Timm, Jr., S.J. Smith, R.M. Touyz, E.G. Bush, and P.K. Wallace. 2007. A method for measuring intracellular free magnesium concentration in platelets using flow cytometry. Magnes Res 20:200-207.

Huang, R.Y., D. Kowalski, H. Minderman, N. Gandhi, and E.S. Johnson. 2007. Small ubiquitin-related modifier pathway is a major determinant of doxorubicin cytotoxicity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cancer Res 67:765-772.

ABSTRACTS

Chen, G., T. Hahn, Y. Zhang, D. Pan, L. Brix, M. Ross, H. Liu, P.K. Wallace, and P. McCarthy. 2012. Quantifying anti-cytomegalovirus (CMV) immunity measuring cmv antigen-specific TCells (casts) in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant patients. Am Society for Bone Marrow Transplant

Kurtzberg, J., Dornsife, R. Preti, W. Chen, P.K. Wallace, R. Furlage, T. Tonn, H. Bonig, and O. Segurado. 2012. BD Stem Cell Enumeration Kit- Multisite accuracy evaluation in FACSCanto and FACSCalibur. European Group for Blood and Bone Marrow Transplantation.

Sullivan, K., R. Woolson, P.K. Wallace, G. Stempowski, P. McSweeney, M. Mayes, L. Crofford, R. Nash, D. Furst, and J. Storek. 2012. Lymphocyte immunophenotypes at entry on the SCOT trial: compared to healthy controls, markedly reduced T & B cell subsets are present in subjects With SSc treated or not treated with prior DMARDS. 2nd Systemic Sclerosis World Congress.

Tornatore, K.M., H. Minderman, O. Maguire, K.L. O'Loughlin, G. Shan, G. Wilding, R. Venuto. December 2012. Nuclear localization of nuclear factor of activated TCells as a pharmacodynamic marker for tacrolimus immmunosuppression in renal transplant recipients. American Society of Transplantation-Scientific Exchange.

Al Ustwani, O., J. Francis, P.K. Wallace, J. Ambrus, Jr., and M. Wetzler. 2011. Treating myelodysplastic syndrome improves an accompanying autoimmune disease along with a reduction in regulatory T-cells. In Leuk Res. e35-36.

Chanan-Khan, A., K.C. Miller, D. Lawrence, S. Padmanabhan, A. Miller, F. Hernandez-Illatazurri, M.S. Czuczman, P.K. Wallace, J.B. Zeldis, and K. Lee. 2011a. Tumor flare reaction associated with lenalidomide treatment in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia predicts clinical response. Cancer 117:2127-2135.

Chanan-Khan, A.A., K. Chitta, N. Ersing, A. Paulus, A. Masood, T. Sher, A. Swaika, P.K. Wallace, T.L. Mashtare, Jr., G. Wilding, K. Lee, M.S. Czuczman, I. Borrello, and N. Bangia. 2011b. Biological effects and clinical significance of lenalidomide-induced tumour flare reaction in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia: in vivo evidence of immune activation and antitumour response. British journal of haematology 155:457-467.

Mace, T.A., L. Zhong, C. Kilpatrick, E. Zynda, C.T. Lee, M. Capitano, H. Minderman, and E.A. Repasky. 2011. Differentiation of CD8+ T cells into effector cells is enhanced by physiological range hyperthermia. Journal of leukocyte biology 90:951-962.

Maguire, O., C. Collins, K. O'Loughlin, J. Miecznikowski, and H. Minderman. 2011. Quantifying nuclear p65 as a parameter for NF-kappaB activation: Correlation between ImageStream cytometry, microscopy, and Western blot. Cytometry. Part A : the journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology 79:461-469.

Melchjorsen, J., M.W. Risor, O.S. Sogaard, K.L. O'Loughlin, S. Chow, S.R. Paludan, S. Ellermann-Eriksen, D.W. Hedley, H. Minderman, L. Ostergaard, and M. Tolstrup. 2011. Tenofovir selectively regulates production of inflammatory cytokines and shifts the IL-12/IL-10 balance in human primary cells. Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes 57:265-275.

Tario, J.D., Jr., K.A. Muirhead, D. Pan, M.E. Munson, and P.K. Wallace. 2011. Tracking immune cell proliferation and cytotoxic potential using flow cytometry. Methods in molecular biology 699:119-164.

Wang, E.S., A. Zeidan, W. Tan, G.E. Wilding, L.A. Ford, P.K. Wallace, T.E. Hahn, M. Battiwalla, P.L. McCarthy, and M. Wetzler. 2011. Cytoreduction with gemtuzumab ozogamicin and cytarabine prior to allogeneic stem cell transplant for relapsed/refractory acute myeloid leukemia. Leukemia & lymphoma

McLoughlin, R.M., A. Calatroni, C.M. Visness, P.K. Wallace, W.W. Cruikshank, J.E. Gern, and D.R. Gold. 2010. Longitudal relation of early-life T-reg phenotype and function with development of allergic sensitization in an urban cohort. American Academy of Alergy, Asthma & Immunology.

Minderman, H., E.S. Wang, J. Arcadi, A. Wierzbicki, S.N. Sait, A.W. Block, V. Venkatachalam, T. George, and P.K. Wallace 2010b. Feasibility of ImageStream-based high-throughput analysis of numerical chromosome defects. International Socitey for Analytical Cytometry

Minderman, H., O.G. Pankewycz, K.L. O'Loughlin, L. Feng, M.R. Laftavi, and P.K. Wallace. 2010a. Correlating a quantitative parameter for nuclear NFkB translocation within vivo immunosuppression.

Minderman, H., T. George, K.L. O'Loughlin, and P.K. Wallace. 2010. Clinical Applications of Multispectral Imaging Flow Cytometry.

Pankewycz, O.G., P.K. Wallace, M. Said, L. Feng, S. Patel, R. Kohli, M. Alnimri, and M.R. Laftavi. 2010. Low Dose Rabbit Anti-Thymocyte Globulin Induction Therapy Selectively Depletes Blood Lymphocytes But Does Not Promote Treg Expansion. American Society of Transplantation

Pawarode, A., P.K. Wallace, L.A. Ford, M. Barcos, and M.R. Baer. 2010. Long-term safety and efficacy of cyclosporin A therapy for T-cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia. Leukemia & lymphoma 51:338-341.

Podniesinski, E., E.A. Timm, Jr., A. Wierzbicki, J. Hendrikx, J. Wilshire, M. Funk, and P.K. Wallace. 2010. An effective bio-safety cabinet for modern cell sorters. GLIIFCA.

Tario, J.D., Jr., K.A. Muirhead, and P.K. Wallace. 2010. Assessing cytotoxic potential using flow cytometry. International Society for Analytical Cytometry.

Tornatore, K.M., P. Sudchada, A. Gundroo, V. Gray, K. Attwood, P.K. Wallace, and R.C. Venuto 2010. Time dependent pharmacodynamic responses of T regulatory cells in stable African American and Caucasion renal transplant recipients. In American Transplant Conference.  San Diego, CA

Block, A., M.T. Smonskey, G. Deeb, A.A. Chanan-Khan, Z.P. Bernstein, K.C. Miller, P.K. Wallace, and P. Starostik. 2009. Mono-and bi-allelic deletions of 13q14.3 in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL):  FISH vs miRNA RT-PCR detection. 

Brady, M.T., K.P. Lee, H. Minderman, Sheila N.J. Sait, and M. Wetzler. 2009. Knock-down of Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 Enhances Acute Myeloid Leukemia-Derived Dendritic Cell function. 

Francis, J., A. Dharmadhikari, S.N, Sait, G. Deeb, P.K. Wallace, J.E. Thompson, E.S. Wang and M. Wetzler.  2009a. Immunophenotypic Clonality Does Not Correlate with Cytogenetic Clonality in CD19-Positive t(8;21)-Negative Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

Varadarajan, R., L. Ford, S.N. Sait, A.W. Block, M. Barcos, P.K. Wallace, N. Ramnath, E.S. Wang, and M. Wetzler. 2008b. Concomitant presentation of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and lung cancer.

Gundroo, A.A., R. Mustafa, N. Tahir, N. Singh, K. Tornatore, P.K. Wallace, and R.C. Venuto. 2009. Early recovery of cytomegalovirus (CMV) specific CD8+ T lymphocytes and decreased incidence of MV infection in renal transplant recipients (RTR induced with alemtuzumab (CAM1H).

Hepgur, M., N. Saito, T. Hahn, S. Smiley, P. McCarthy P. Starostik, P.K. Wallace, B. Bambach, M. Higman, K. Dubel, and B.M. 2009. Early complete donor lymphoid chimerism with fludarabine, melphalan and low dose (400 cGy) total body irradiation reduced intensity conditioning. American Society of Hematology .

McLoughlin, R., A. Calatroni, C.M. Visness, N.P. Ly, P.K. Wallace, W.W.Cruikshank, J.E. Gern, and D.R. Gold. 2009. Relation of early life regulatory t-cell function and phenotype development to wheeze and allergy:the urban environment and childhood asthma. American Academy of Alergy, Asthma and Immunology.

Minderman, H., J. Arcadi, A. Wierzbicki, E.S. Wang, S.N. Sait, A.W. Block, L. Liang, T. George, and P.K. Wallace. 2009a. Detection of numerical chromosome aberrations in rare acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells.

Minderman, H., K.L. O'Loughlin, C. Collins, V. Venkatachalam, T. George, P.K. Wallace. 2009. Quantitative measurement of nuclear translocation of NFkB and STAT-3 as parameter of response to targeted treatments in immunophenotypically defined cells in acute myeloid leukemia.

Minderman, H., T. George, K.L. O'Loughlin, and P.K. Wallace. 2009b. Clinical applications of multispectral imaging flow cytometry.

Minderman, H., T. Mace, C. Kilpatrick, H. Minderman, P.K. Wallace, and E. Repasky. 2009. Characterizing the Effects of Mild Systemic Hyperthermia on Antigen-Specific Lymphocyte Function and Plasma Membrane Organization.

Pankewycz, I.G., H. Minderman, P.K. Wallace, L. Feng, and M.R. Laftavi. 2009. A Novel Method to Assess the Level Immunosupression in Transplant Patients Using Amnis ImageStream Technology.

Riddell, J.R., X.Y. Wang, H. Minderman, S.O, Gollnick. November 2009. Tumor Cell Secreted Peroxiredoxin 1Stimulate Secretion of Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines by Binding to TLR4.  Journal of Immunology

Harb, A., W. Tan, G.E. Wilding, L.A. Ford, S.N. Sait, A.W. Block, M. Barcos, P.K. Wallace, E.S. Wang, and M. Wetzler. 2008. Treating ocogenerian and nonagenarian acute myeloid leukemia patients - predictive prognostic models.

Lannigan, J.A.B., R. Duggan, W. Murphy, L. Arnold, K. Schell, L. Wilkie, P. K. Wallace, A.N. White, and C.H. Pletcher. 2008. A simple, cost effective quality assurance process for evaluating and monitoring flow cytometer performance.

Pankewycz, I.G., H. Minderman, P.K. Wallace, L. Feng, and M.R. Laftavi. 2008. A novel method to assess the level of in vivo immunosuppression in transplant patients using amnis imagestream technology.

Varadarajan, R., L. Ford, S.N. Sait, A.W. Block, M. Barcos, P.K. Wallace, N. Ramnath, E.S. Wang, and M. Wetzler. 2008a. Metachronous and synchronous presentation of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and lung cancer.

Varadarajan, R., L. Ford, S.N. Sait, A.W. Block, M. Barcos, P.K. Wallace, N. Ramnath, E.S. Wang, and M. Wetzler. 2008b. Concomitant presentation of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and lung cancer.

Lawrence, W.G., G. Varadi, R. Farrell, G. Entine, E. Podniesinski, and P.K. Wallace. 2007. An Avalanche Photodiode Array for Polychromatic Flow Cytometry using Visible and Near Infrared Fluorenscence. BIOS at Photonics West.

Minderman, H. Sept 28-30, 2007. Potential and Challenges for Clinical Application of multispectral Imaging Cytometry. 

Tario, J.D., Jr., B.D. Gray, S.S. Wallace, K.A. Muirhead, B. M. Ohlsson-Wilhelm, and P.K. Wallace. 2007. Novel lipophilic tracking dyes for monitoring cell proliferation.  GLIIFCA.